The Balanced Scorecard Combined with an Alternative Costing System
An Effective Contribution to Governance
This project investigated whether a strategy framework such as the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), linked to a Performance Management System (PMS), would, compared to a more standard model of strategic planning, improve focus and research output by botanic gardens worldwide. The focus of the project shifted as the opportunity arose to develop an objective costing system linked to the related PMS, which allowed the researchers to posit that the BSC framework could provide a more effective contribution to governance. The research output was based on an in-depth case study at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh employing documentary analysis and innovative action research techniques adopting a constructive approach. This paper has been adapted for Sibbaldia having previously been published by the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) Research Project R220 (Macnab et al., 2010).
Ansoff, H.I. (1979). Strategic Management. Macmillan, London.
Chandler, A.D. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA.
Grant, R.M. (2008). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Blackwell, Oxford.
Innes, J. & Mitchell, F. (1998). A Practical Guide to Activity-Based Costing. Kogan Page Ltd., London.
International Federation of Accountants (IFAC ) & Chartered Institute
of Management Accountants (CIMA) (2004). Executive Summary Enterprise
Governance – Getting the Balance Right. Available online: http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocument/tech_execsum_enterprise_governance_0804.pdf (accessed June 2010).
Johnson, G. & Scholes, K. (1999). Exploring Corporate Strategy. Pearson Education Ltd., Harlow.
Kaplan, R.S. & Norton, D.P. (1996). Translating Strategy into Action: The Balanced Scorecard. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
Kaplan, R.S. & Norton, D.P. (2004). Strategy Maps: Converting Intangible Assets into
Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
Lorsch, J.W. (2002). Smelling Smoke: Why Boards of Directors Need the Balanced Scorecard. Balanced Scorecard Report (September–October), 9.
Macnab, A., CARR, C. & Mitchell, F. (2010). Garden designs to improve the line of sight: Implementation of the balanced scorecard and an alternative costing system at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Research executive summary series, 6(7).
Marr, B. (2009). Managing and Delivering Performance. Elsevier, Oxford.
Mintzberg, H. (1994). The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. Prentice Hall, New York & London.
NIVEN, P.R. (2003). Balanced Scorecard: Step-By-Step for Government and Nonprofit Agencies. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2010). Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
Corporate Plan 2010/11–2014/15 Available online: http://bit.ly/9P7cy4 (accessed June 2010).
Copyright (c) 2010 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Please read our Open Access, Copyright and Permissions policies for more information.