Sibbaldia: the Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib <p><em>Sibbaldia</em> <em id="tinymce" class="mceContentBody " dir="ltr"></em>publishes articles based on a broad range of practical knowledge and experience in botanic garden cultivation from many countries, built up over many decades.</p> Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh en-US Sibbaldia: the Journal of Botanic Garden Horticulture 2513-9231 <p>Please read our <a href="/index.php/rbgesib/about#openAccessPolicy">Open Access, Copyright and Permissions policies</a> for more information.</p> Sibbaldia 17 Foreword https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/263 Sibbaldia 17 Foreword by the Editor Kate Hughes Copyright (c) 2019 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 1 2 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.263 Cities : https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/264 <p>Now that more than half of humanity lives in cities, urban greenspace and Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) have never been more important. Although the health benefits and ecosystem services provided by urban greenspace are now widely appreciated, the potential for cities to provide refuges for native flora in general and threatened plants in particular, is not. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals provide an internationally agreed framework for tackling the world’s greatest challenges including the biodiversity crisis, climate change and the need to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. This article explores the opportunity provided by these Global Goals for botanic garden horticulture to make cities havens for endangered plants and better places for people to live in. It identifies botanic gardens as the only organisations with the potential to overcome the barriers to conservation in the city.</p> Stephen Blackmore Copyright (c) 2019 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 3 10 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.264 Bogor Botanic Gardens https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/265 <p>Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG) was established in 1817 and is the oldest botanic garden in South East Asia. The garden has long been a centre for scientific research and has been the founding institution of a number of other research centres in Indonesia, particularly in the life sciences. The garden initially covered 47 ha but has expanded over the years and is now 87 ha. It has evolved over its 200-year history from a collection of economically valuable plants to the multi-faceted institute it is today, undertaking activities in plant conservation, research, education, ecotourism and environmental services. In recent years, it has strengthened its role in plant conservation through the establishment of 32 new botanic gardens across Indonesia. These new gardens are managed by local government and universities and supervised by BBG. In its bicentenary year, 2017, BBG organised a number of activities, programmes and celebrations and these are highlighted in this<br>article.</p> Siti Roosita Ariati Didik Widyatmoko Copyright (c) 2019 Siti Roosita Ariati, Didik Widyatmoko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 11 28 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.265 A Survey of Bryophytes and their Management in the Ferns and Fossils House at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/266 <p>This paper is derived from a research project produced during the author’s studies for a BSc in Horticulture with Plantsmanship at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE). The body of work represents findings from a floristic survey of naturally occurring bryophytes in the Ferns and Fossils House at RBGE. This site merited close study due to the known presence of at least two southern hemisphere species along with many native species. Horticultural staff were interviewed about current bryophyte management within glasshouse displays. Recommendations are made for raising the status of bryophytes in botanic gardens and expanding the scope of living collections.</p> <p>This report includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, survey results, interview summary and conclusion.</p> Hazel France Copyright (c) 2019 Hazel France https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 29 50 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.266 How the Cultivation of Wild Plants in Botanic Gardens can Change their Genetic and Phenotypic Status and What This Means for their Conservation Value https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/267 <p>The discipline of horticulture, growing and propagating plants under artificial conditions, has a centuries-long tradition and has developed into a vital industry of breeding, propagating and trading ornamental and wild plants around the globe. Botanic gardens have always been at the centre of horticultural training and have provided excellence and advancements in the field. In recent decades, botanic gardens have also become an active part of ex situ conservation activities by storing seeds of endangered wild plants, growing living collections for conservation purposes, or propagating plants for direct reintroduction measures. While this shift in focus has been necessary and very important, ex situ collections of wild plants have been criticised for being<br>genetically impoverished, potentially hybridised with congeners, or adapted to the artificial garden conditions and potentially having lost specific adaptations to their original wild habitat. In this review, we provide an overview of these potential threats to wild plants in ex situ living collections and outline examples of how ex situ cultivation can affect genetic diversity, trait expression and adaptive responses of the plants. We evaluate what these changes could mean for the conservation value of the collections, and discuss how they could be avoided by refining horticultural practices.&nbsp;</p> Andreas Ensslin Sandrine Godefroid Copyright (c) 2019 Andreas Ensslin, Sandrine Godefroid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 51 70 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.267 Conservation Hedges: https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/268 <p>In May 2014, the first planting of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) conservation hedge took place, when the Reverend Anne Brennan planted a tree which had originated as a cutting from the ancient and historic European yew, Taxus baccata, in the churchyard of her church at Fortingall, Perthshire. This is one of almost 2,000 plants that will eventually form a conservation hedge of significant scientific and conservation value. The International Conifer Conservation Programme (ICCP), based at RBGE, has actively sought other opportunities to establish conservation hedges via its network of ‘safe sites’, using a range of different conifer species. This initiative is being driven by the potential for relatively large numbers of genotypes from a single threatened species to be stored in a linear space. It is well established that seed banks have a great capacity to store large amounts of genetic diversity, so we should simply consider conservation hedges in a similar manner. These super-hedges cram relatively large amounts of genetic material into a small space, capturing a great range of wild traits and potentially contributing to the restoration of wild populations. To date, conservation hedges have been planted at five separate locations at RBGE’s Edinburgh Garden as well as at four ICCP external ‘safe sites’. Although this article focuses on the establishment of conservation hedges using conifers, we have also highlighted some conservation hedges that comprise non-coniferous species.</p> Martin Gardner Tom Christian William Hinchliffe Rob Cubey Copyright (c) 2019 Martin Gardner, Tom Christian, William Hinchliffe, Rob Cubey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 71 100 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.268 Biogeographical Principles in Horticulture https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/269 <p>With more than 780 species, Erica is the largest genus in the Core Cape Subregion, once referred to as the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), in South Africa. The redevelopment of the Erica Display Garden at Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden to fulfil aesthetic, conservation and educational purposes is described. The author draws on decades of field work in the CFR to open a window for botanic garden visitors and schoolchildren who have not had the privilege of experiencing the unique flora of the CFR. An explanation for the extraordinary diversity of the CFR is explored.</p> <p>The challenge of engaging with visitors and at the same time highlighting the diversity of ericas and fynbos while overcoming the difficulties of growing wild species out of their natural and niche habitats is explained. The most effective way to display South African ericas and fynbos is discussed. The use of phytogeographical themes is preferred as a suitable method to display diversity in botanic garden horticulture. Nine planting beds totalling 8,000 m2 were redeveloped to represent six distinct phytogeographic regions identified in Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region (Manning &amp; Goldblatt, 2012). Nineteen of the twenty largest families and genera of the Cape flora are also represented in these displays. Interpretation was created to provide information on the defining features of each region. The phytogeographic theme was used to emulate typical natural floristic features of each and to bring the concept of geographically driven plant diversity to the attention of the visiting public and students.</p> Anthony Hitchcock Copyright (c) 2019 Anthony Hitchcock https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 101 120 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.269 The Temperate House Restoration Project https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/270 <p>There is a long tradition at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (RBG, Kew) of cultivating and displaying exotic plants from all over the globe, and the largest Victorian glasshouse, the Temperate House, traditionally&nbsp; showcases plants from temperate regions. The Temperate House Restoration Project was undertaken at RBG, Kew from 2012 to 2018. Over 1,000 species of plants were removed, propagated and replanted for this project, and this article describes the propagation of some of the most difficult to reproduce plant material. Four plant groups or species are presented: <em>Erica verticillata</em> P.J.Bergius, <em>Quercus insignis</em> M.Martens Galeotti, <em>Pinus roxburghii</em> Sargent and <em>Banksia</em> spp. L. This is in order to illustrate the variety of options available for propagating challenging species with attention to their ecology, biology and growing requirements.</p> <p>Also provided are background information, reasons why these plants are considered difficult to multiply in cultivation, how plant material was sourced and the methods employed which led to successful propagation of the material at RBG, Kew. Propagation of the plants was heavily reliant on the horticultural expertise of those involved, and this expertise ensured that most of the original plant material was rejuvenated and new collections with scientific significance were added to the restored Temperate House.</p> Rebecca Hilgenhof Scott Taylor Andrew Luke Copyright (c) 2019 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 121 140 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.270 Cultivation of Orites Myrtoideus https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/271 <p>Orites myrtoideus (Poepp. &amp; Endl.) Engl. is an evergreen shrub in the family Proteaceae, endemic&nbsp; to the Andes of both Chile and Argentina. With a small distribution and increasing risks, direct conservation action has been recommended. Ex situ cultivation and subsequent translocation of populations may be an option for the conservation of this species. In recent documented history this species has been grown ex situ on only a small number of occasions. One plant was grown outside at Benmore Botanic Garden for a period of five years and another has been grown at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh as part of the Arid Lands collections. A better understanding of its cultivation requirements has been deemed necessary before ex situ collections can be established.<br>This study aims to give a broad overview of the germination and first 12 months of cultivation of this taxon with the aim of informing future ex situ cultivation and subsequent restoration initiatives.</p> Robert Blackhall-Miles Copyright (c) 2019 Robert Blackhall-Miles https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 141 154 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.271 The Living Collection at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Illustrates the Floral Diversity in Streptocarpus (Gesneriaceae) https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/272 <p>A visual summary of the floral types present in the diverse genus Streptocarpus is given along with descriptions of the different categories. We categorised the species and defined seven types and six sub-types. The use of a comprehensive and well-curated living collection for the study of floral diversification is presented and its use for interpretation and education discussed.</p> Michael Moller Hannah Atkins Sadie Barber David Purvis Copyright (c) 2019 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 155 177 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.272 The Role of Gardens in Integrated Conservation Practice https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/273 <p>Gardens and horticulturists play an increasingly important role in plant conservation, both in situ and ex situ. Integrated research and conservation of species intends to work across fields to connect science to conservation practice by engaging actors from different sectors, including gardens. The case of integrated conservation of <em>Quercus brandegeei</em>, a microendemic oak species in Baja California Sur, Mexico, is presented as an example of a collaboration between gardens and academic researchers to create a species-specific conservation plan that incorporates horticultural knowledge.</p> Audrey Denvir Jeannine Cavender-Bares Antonio González-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2019 Audrey Denvir, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Antonio González-Rodríguez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 177 188 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.273 Micropropagation of Heritage Rhododendron Collections at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/274 <p>The most recent efforts at micropropagation of Rhododendron species started at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 2013. This paper outlines the methods and practices adopted, and highlights some of the problems and pitfalls encountered throughout the process. At the close of 2017 the first plants propagated using in vitro techniques were planted at Benmore Botanic Garden in Argyll, Scotland.</p> Neil Davidson Copyright (c) 2019 Neil Davidson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 189 200 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.274 The History of the Walled (Formal) Garden at Benmore Botanic Garden https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/275 <p>The 2.02 ha site containing the Category B listed Walled Garden at Benmore is currently the subject of a major redesign proposal and active fundraising programme. The purpose of this article is to raise the profile of the project by investigating and highlighting the historical development of the site. This retrospective study is also intended as a support to contemporary redevelopment plans and as a demonstration of how the past underpins and informs the future.<br>I am frankly and absolutely for a formal garden … It is a small piece of ground enclosed by walls … There is not the least attempt to imitate natural scenery (Phillpotts, 1906, p. 54).</p> David Gray Copyright (c) 2019 David Gray https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 201 236 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.275 'Friends in Pots' https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/276 <p>A method of growing bulbous species with stones as companions to small bulbs is described and illustrated. Statistics for the number of taxa in the ten largest genera in the bulb collection at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh are provided.</p> Elspeth MacKintosh Copyright (c) 2019 Elspeth MacKintosh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-05 2019-02-05 17 237 244 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.276 Style Guide for authors https://journals.rbge.org.uk/rbgesib/article/view/277 <p>If you would like to contribute to <em>Sibbaldia</em> please send a summary of the content of your proposed paper to <a href="mailto:sibbaldia@rbge.org.uk">sibbaldia@rbge.org.uk</a>. Papers and short notes on the cultivation, conservation, research, botany (but not taxonomic botany), history, landscaping, legislation, management and curation of plants and landscapes in botanic and other gardens will be considered. All papers and short notes are accepted on the understanding that they have not have been accepted for publication or be under consideration elsewhere and that they will be subject to editing. All papers will be reviewed by independent reviewers. Authors are required to agree to the <a title="Creative Commons Copyright Notice" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Copyright Notice</a> in the online submission process. Authors for whom English is not their first language should have their papers checked by a fluent English speaker before submission. The suitability for inclusion of the paper in <em>Sibbaldia</em> rests with the Editor.</p><p>A pdf of the paper and a copy of the final printed format will be supplied to authors free of charge.</p> Kate Hughes Copyright (c) 2019 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 17 10.23823/Sibbaldia/2019.277