An International Plant Sentinel Network

Ellie Barham, Suzanne Sharrock, Charles Lane, Richard Baker


Invasive plant pests and pathogens pose a major threat to biodiversity around the world, amplified in recent years by the globalisation of trade in plants and plant material and the impacts of climate change. Botanic gardens and arboreta offer a unique opportunity for the identification and further investigation of new and emerging pest and pathogen risks, which can provide valuable information for the creation of prevention, eradication and control programmes. The International Plant Sentinel Network (IPSN) is being developed to provide a platform for coordination, information exchange and support for sentinel plant research within botanic gardens and arboreta. Alongside IPSN Member Gardens, the network includes plant protection professionals and National Plant Protection Organisations (NPPOs) from around the world. The IPSN provides tools which will help to enable gardens to contribute to research by increasing knowledge and awareness among garden staff, developing standardised approaches and providing training materials and methodologies for monitoring and surveying. The network also promotes links with local professional diagnostic support that can help aid the early detection and rapid response to new pest incursions, thus protecting valuable, and often unique, plant collections.

Full Text:



AUKEMA, J.E., LEUNG, B., KOVACS, K., CHIVERS, C., BRITTON, K.O., ENGLIN, J., FRANKEL, S.J., HAIGHT, R.G., HOLMES, T.P., LIEBHOLD, A.M., MCCULLOUGH, D.G. & HOLLE, B.V. (2011). Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States. PLoS ONE DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0024587

BAKER, R.H.A., BATTISTI, A., BREMMER, J., KENIS, M., MUMFORD, J., PETTER, F., SCHRADER, G., BACHER, S., DE BARRO, P., HULME, P.E., KARADJOVA, O., LANSINK, A.O., PRUVOST, O., PYŠEK, P., ROQUES, A., BARANCHIKOV, Y. & SUN, J.H. (2009). PRATIQUE: a research project to enhance pest risk analysis techniques in the European Union. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 39: 87–93.

BRITTON, K.O. (2010). Informing pest prevention efforts through Sentinel Plant Monitoring Proceedings of the the 4th Global Botanic Gardens Congress, Dublin, 14–18 June 2010.

Available online: (accessed May 2015).

BRITTON, K.O., WHITE, P., KRAMER, A. & HUDLER, G. (2010). A new approach to stopping the spread of invasive insects and pathogens: early detection and rapid response via a global network of sentinel plants. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 40: 109–114.

CENTER FOR INVASIVE SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (2010). Photo of A. glabripennis. Dennis Haugen, USDA Forest Service. Available online: (accessed June 2015).

CENTER FOR INVASIVE SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (2014). Photo of Emerald ash borer. Troy Kimoto, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Available online: (accessed June 2015).

DEFRA (2013a). Chalara in ash trees: a framework for assessing ecosystem impacts and appraising options. Available online:

attachment_data/file/200396/pb13906-chalara-socio-economic-framework.pdf (accessed April 2015).

DEFRA (2013b). Tree health and plant biosecurity expert taskforce: final report. Available online: (accessed April 2015).

DIXON, J. (2013). Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorn beetle) and A. glabripennis (Asian longhorn beetle) in the UK: March 2012–April 2013. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Update (unpublished report).

EUPHRESCO (2015). Available online: (accessed March 2015). FAGAN, L.L., BITHELL, S.L. & DICK, M.A. (2008). Systems for identifying invasive threats to New Zealand flora by using overseas plantings of New Zealand native plants. In: FOURD, K.J., POPAY, A.I. & ZYDENBOS, S.M. (eds), Surveillence for Biosecurity: Pre-border to

Pest Management. New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc), Auckland.

GARDENSEARCH (2015). Available online: (accessed March 2015).

HU, J., ANGELI, S., SCHUETZ, S., LUO, Y. & HAJEK, A.E. (2009). Ecology and management of exotic and endemic Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11: 359–375. PLoS ONE DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00443.x

HULME, P. (2009). Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalisation. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 10–18.

ISEFOR (2015). Available online: (accessed March 2015).

KENIS, M., ROQUES, A., SUN, J.H., FAN, J.T., KIRICHENKO, N., BARANCHIKOV, Y., TOMOSHEVICH, M., YART, A., HOLMES, K. & PÉRÉ, C. (2011). PRATIQUE. Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques (unpublished).

KRAMER, A. (2010). Using BGCI’s databases to connect plant collections and expertise to support the development of an International Sentinel Plant Network. Proceedings of the the 4th Global Botanic Gardens Congress, Dublin, 14–18 June 2010. Available online: www. (accessed May 2015).

KRAMER, A. & HIRD, A. (2011). Building an International Sentinel Plant Network. BG Journal 8: 3–6.

LIEBHOLD, A.M., BROCKERHOFF, E.G., GARRETT, L.J., PARKE, J.L. & BRITTON, K.O. (2012). Live plant imports; the major pathway for forest insects and pathogen invasions of the USA. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 135–143.

MACEK, J. & ŠÍPEK, P. (2015). Azalea sawfly Nematus lipovskyi (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a new invasive species in Europe. European Journal of Entomology 112: 180–186. DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.018

MACLEOD, A., EVANS, H.F. & BAKER, R.H.A. (2002). An analysis of pest risk from an Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) to hardwood trees in the European community. Crop Protection 21: 635–645. DOI:10.1016/S0261-2194(02)00016-9

MILLER, S.A., BEED, F.D. & HARMON, C.L. (2009). Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks. Annual Review of Phytopathology 47: 15–38.

OPAL (2012). Available online: (accessed April 2015).

PLANTSEARCH (2015). Available online: (accessed March 2015).

POLAND, T.M. & MCCULLOUGH, D.G. (2006). Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America’s ash resource. Journal of Forestry 104: 118–124.

SENTINEL PLANT NETWORK (2015). Available online: (accessed March 2015).

STEFFEN K., SCHRADER, G., STARFINGER, U., BRUNEL, S. & SISSONS, A. (2012). Pest risk analysis and invasive alien plants: progress through PRATIQUE. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 42: 28–34.

STRAW, N.A., FIELDING, N.J., TILBURY, C., WILLIAMS, D.T. & INWARD, D. (2014). Host plant selection and resource utilisation by Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in southern England. Forestry 88(1): 84–95.

STRAW, N.A., WILLIAMS, D.T., KULINICH, O. & GNINENKO, Y.I. (2013). Distribution, impact and rate of spread of emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera:Buprestidae) in the Moscow region of Russia. Forestry 86(5): 515–522.

TOMOSHEVICH M., KIRICHENKO, N., HOLMES, K. & KENIS M. (2013). Foliar fungal pathogens of European woody plants in Siberia: an early warning of potential threats? Forest Pathology 43: 345–359.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh